This guide is for Gentoo Linux and we will be creating an encrypted root partition. We will be using a rather vanilla method without fancy gpg encrypted key files or anything of the sort.
This guide uses LUKS, if you would prefer plain dm-crypt reference the following.
Wherever /dev/sda3 is mentioned, replace that with the partition you are making your encrypted root.
I recommend you use SystemRescue CD to follow this guide.
SystemRescue CD comes with Gparted, use it to create the following
A boot partition of ~2 gb or so, with the boot flag set
Another partition equal to the size you want in total, this will have LVM to create other 'partitions' later and must be of adequate size for all your data.
Load the dm-crypt kernel module
Crypt the partition that you are making your root, in my case that would be /dev/sda3
cryptsetup -c aes-cbc-essiv:sha256 -v luksFormat -s 256 /dev/sda3
Open the luks volume
cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda3 sda3-luks
Setup a LVM physical volume
lvm pvcreate /dev/mapper/sda3-luks
Setup a volume group
lvm vgcreate vg1 /dev/mapper/sda3-luks
Create the logical volumes, make one of these for each 'partition' like you normally would. Before you go ahead and just create a root and swap partition, and nothing else, please consider reading the 'Configure your mount options securely' link at the bottom. This is a chance to configure things securely further
lvcreate --size 50G --name root vg1 lvcreate --size 10G --name swap vg1
Go ahead and review things, then finalize the new volume group by 'activating' it
pvdisplay vgdisplay lvdisplay vgchange --available y
This should inform you that two LVs in the vg1 volume group have been activated. Check that they are visible by the device mapper:
ls -l /dev/mapper
Now we have our virtual partitions, we need to set up their filesystems and then mount them.
mkswap -L "swap" /dev/mapper/vg1-swap swapon -v /dev/mapper/vg1-swap
Then format root as ext4
mkfs.ext4 -L "root" /dev/mapper/vg1-root
Next we will mount vg1-root on /mnt/gentoo, and then mount the boot partition at /mnt/gentoo/boot
mount -v -t ext4 /dev/mapper/vg1-root /mnt/gentoo
Don't forget to mount your /boot partition, this is a unencrypted, standard partition
mkdir /mnt/gentoo/boot mount /dev/sdYX /mnt/gentoo/boot
This is where you would pick up from here in the Gentoo Handbook as an example. After you progress through the handbook and complete it, you require some additional configuration to boot the encrypted disk. Continue back here after getting to this point.
Lets begin preparing the chroot
mount -t proc proc /mnt/gentoo/proc mount --rbind /sys /mnt/gentoo/sys mount --make-rslave /mnt/gentoo/sys mount --rbind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev mount --make-rslave /mnt/gentoo/dev chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash && source /etc/profile export PS1="(chroot) $PS1"
Genkernel is the recommended way to proceed here, although you could build your kernel and initramfs a different way if you desire
emerge --ask sys-kernel/genkernel-next
Compile the kernel and initramfs with lvm and luks support
genkernel --luks --lvm --busybox --menuconfig all
The GRUB configuration located at /etc/default/grub requires some extra information to how how to boot our set-up, it needs to know the UUID of the /dev/sda3 encrypted partition
Before we can do that, assure you have a bootloader installed. You could use LiLo here too, but I will show you this with GRUB2.
emerge --ask sys-boot/grub:2 sys-boot/os-prober
Now edit /etc/default/grub with your text editor of choice
GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="crypt_root=UUID=<uuid of sda3> dolvm"
After setting the above proceed to install GRUB to /dev/sda and then generate the configuration
grub-install /dev/sda grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
Note: Assure that the config isn't named _/boot/grub/grub.cfg.new_before you reboot, it does this sometimes for whatever reason
Complete! Now you can follow the next steps to continue from this point